Amplitude Optical Modulators O, C & L Bands: Digital and Analogue

Created October 2, 2023
Product Focus

Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) intensity modulators are designed for modulation frequencies larger than 30GHz. The X-cut design of the Mach-Zehnder modulators provides an unmatched stability in a wide range of operational conditions plus zero chirp performance. Exail’s proprietary waveguide design offers low insertion loss with a high contrast.


Key features:

  • low insertion loss
  • high bandwidth
  • zero chirp
  • low driving voltage
  • high second harmonic rejection

Applications include digital modulation NRZ, RZ, DPSK, duo binary modulation formats, up to 44Gb/s-NRZ, QPSK-56Gb/s and analogue modulation up to 40GHz. Matching modulator digital driver amplifiers are DR-DG and the DR-AN family for analogue applications. The DR-DG drivers are optimised for peak-to-peak voltage, rise/fall times and jitter and the DR-AN is characterised by a low noise figure and a linear transfer function with optimised 1dB compression point. The driver exhibits flat group delay and gain curves with reduced ripple over the bandwidth.

Further details:


This article was written
by Peter Dykes

Peter Dykes is a independent telecoms and technology journalist who has over that last 30 years written for a wide range of B2B publications and companies. A former BT engineer, he specialises in networks and associated support systems. He is currently Editor of Optical Connections.